A history of getting history wrong.

Science ‘supersedes’ creationism, Einstein tells religious students in newly revealed letter (msn.com)

There have been two cave systems, among many, where ancestral human remains have been discovered, the Rising Star cave system (Rising Star Cave – Wikipedia) is located in the Bloubank River valley of South Africa, where the remains of about fifteen individuals of Homo naledi were discovered, and the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia), a massive labyrinthian cave system where in a deep shaft known as,  “the chimney,” the remains of 28 individuals of Homo heidelbergensis were discovered.

In this PBS NOVA documentary, “PBS.Nova.Becoming.Human.2010.155Min – YouTube,” at 1:54:45, Spanish paleoanthropologist Juan Luis Arsuaga believes the remains of Homo heidelbergensis were put in this pit, known as the “Pit of Bones,” intentionally when there was an opening on the surface of the ground approximately 500,000 years ago, by their kin as a primitive burial (see video at 1:54:45 for re-enactment).

(Please note, the narrator in the documentary says “half a million years ago,” at the time that the animated re-enactment of the group of Homo heidelbergensis is depositing the body in the pit. However, in the Wikipedia article, it is stated that “the remains are at least 350,000 years old.” Going forward I am going to be using the 350,000 BP date and not the older date, but I understand that these remains can fall within either of these two times and possibly even outside of them.

And I do not ignore the fact that,

“A competing theory cites the lack of small bones in the assemblage and suggests that the fossils were washed into the pit by non-human agents.” (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia))

The same hypothesis is believed of the Homo naledi remains found in the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system also featured in the documentary, however, it is not thought that there was a surface opening to the pit, but that the remains were physically transported to their final resting place:

“Paleoanthropologist John D. Hawks, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who is a member of the team, has stated that the scientific facts are that all the bones recovered are hominin, except for those of one owl; there are no signs of predation, and there is no predator that accumulates only hominins this way; the bones did not accumulate there all at once. There is no evidence of rocks or sediment having dropped into the cave from any opening in the surface; no evidence of water flowing into the cave carrying the bones into the cave.

Hawks concluded that the best hypothesis is that the bodies were deliberately placed in the cave after death, by other members of the species.” (Rising Star Cave – Wikipedia)

Along with the discovery of the Homo heidelbergensis remains in The Pit of Bones, a single red quartzite Acheulean hand axe, and the fossils of an extinct species of bear known as Ursus deningeri were also found. With the remains of Homo naledi in the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star caves, were the bones of a single owl, as stated in the quote above.

I understand that the use of Wikipedia may or may not be entirely reliable or accurate, and I recognize this. Any and all sources, no matter who or where they come from whether scholarly, peer-reviewed, or otherwise, always need to be taken skeptically, scrutinized, and fact-checked thoroughly.  However, it gives us a stepping stone to build upon. For the most part, resources and references are available within the Wikipedia articles to further investigate and research. Suppose you believe that the information disclosed is incorrect or inaccurate, in that case, you, just like myself, can follow up by using the, “See Also,” “References,” and “External Links,” provided on the Wikipedia pages to further investigate. Or, seek out your own reference materials in your local library, bookstores, online sources, etc. The resources are virtually limitless.

Going forward, when I refer to humans:

“Although some scientists equate the term “humans” with all members of the genus Homo, in common usage it generally refers to Homo sapiens, the only extant member.” (Human – Wikipedia)

I am not only referring to the species Homo Sapiens, but I am also referring to our close ancestral relatives in the genus Homo including but not limited to:

Homo habilis – Wikipedia

Homo erectus – Wikipedia

Homo ergaster – Wikipedia

Homo antecessor – Wikipedia

Homo heidelbergensis – Wikipedia

Homo naledi – Wikipedia

Neanderthal – Wikipedia

Homo floresiensis – Wikipedia

Homo luzonensis – Wikipedia

Denisovan – Wikipedia

I would even consider possibly including:

Australopithecine – Wikipedia

Next, I will identify what is considered writing:

“A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication, based on a script and a set of rules regulating its use. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. Writing systems require shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage.

Writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies, although any particular system may have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, a standard set of letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora. In logography, each character represents a semantic unit such as a word or morpheme.

Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols.” (Writing system – Wikipedia)

However, I am going to disagree with this:

“The invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner that was not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long-distance communication.” (Writing system – Wikipedia)

There is a period of time known as:

“Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the first known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago and the beginning of recorded history with the invention of writing systems. The use of symbols, marks, and images appears very early among humans, but the earliest known writing systems appeared c. 5000 years ago.” (Prehistory – Wikipedia)

I dispute this and hopefully will prove that writing has existed for far longer than is given credit.

In both of the above cases of the human remains found in the cave systems, I agree with the prevailing consensus that these remains were deposited in these deep caverns on purpose by humans, but not for the reasons anthropologists believe. Nor was it any kind of ritualistic funeral. This was not ritual or ceremonial, this was writing. Both of these examples are some of the earliest human writings of scripture.

When I refer to scripture I am referring to any writings of a historic, religious, mythic, or legendary nature, from any and all human writings including, but not limited to:

Hindu (Hindu texts – Wikipedia)

Enuma Elish (Enūma Eliš – Wikipedia)

Epic of Gilgamesh (Epic of Gilgamesh – Wikipedia)

Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrianism – Wikipedia)

Egyptian mythology (Egyptian mythology – Wikipedia)

Greek mythology (Greek mythology – Wikipedia)

Roman mythology (Roman mythology – Wikipedia)

Norse mythology (Norse mythology – Wikipedia)

African religions (Traditional African religions – Wikipedia)

Aboriginal mythology (Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology – Wikipedia)

North and South American Indigenous Mythologies (Mythologies of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas – Wikipedia)

Bhuddism (Buddhism – Wikipedia)

Islam (Quran – Wikipedia)

Judaism (Hebrew Bible – Wikipedia)

And finally,

History (History – Wikipedia)

The Old and New Testaments of the Bible (Bible – Wikipedia)

However, these examples above, originally oral and then written, were not the original scriptures. The original written scriptures were:

Rising Star Cave – Wikipedia

Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia

Çatalhöyük – Wikipedia

Göbekli Tepe – Wikipedia

Sumer – Wikipedia

Tell es-Sultan – Wikipedia

History of China – Wikipedia

Ancient Egypt – Wikipedia

Ancient Greece – Wikipedia

Ancient Rome – Wikipedia

Machu Picchu – Wikipedia

Nan Madol – Wikipedia

Troy – Wikipedia

The examples above are just a few of many, many cave systems and ancient ruins of what is thought of as, ‘ancient human settlements.’ There are far more than I could ever list here, and I certainly don’t want to leave out any, “group or cultures” contribution, but wherever an ancient site has been excavated and studied for anthropological and archaeological purposes, and wherever a new site may be found, please consider them to be a part of this list as well.

I hypothesize that these places, no matter where in the world they may be, were not places that people resided in, at least not for long periods of time as is suggested. These places were built exactly as they are found today, by humans as a form of writing, perhaps the original human writings, or architectural writing. Whatever state of decay they are found in is exactly the same state of decay they were built in at the time of their construction. Even stones found far away in the quarries, left behind because they were cracked, broken, unfinished, or left behind mid-way through transportation, were cracked, broken, and left behind on purpose by the builders because they were just as much a part of the writing as was the construction of the ruins themselves.

As I stated above, I will be referring to all that I listed above as scripture, but I will be using mainly the Old Testament (Jewish Tanakh) and New Testaments of the Bible. I do not wish to point out any one specific text, as being superior to any other culture’s text, it is not what I am here to do. I am not singling out these texts specifically because I am promoting any specific religion such as Christianity or Judaism, or any religion at all. You may call me an Atheist, which is fine, however, I neither see myself as an Atheist nor Theist. I do not believe in God, or gods of any kind for that matter, nor do I believe that the Bible was written by some divine inspiration of a god, it was written by humans just like you and I. As the quote about writing stated above, “writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer,” and that is exactly what the Bible, equally as well as all the numerous examples of scripture I have identified above, were intended to be. Scripture is the greatest form of information storage, data compaction, and data transfer that humans have been collecting for millennia. This data was, among some of the firsts, written when the bodies of Homo heidelbergensis were dropped in the Pit of Bones, with the hand axe and, perhaps, the fossils of an extinct species of bear, and when the bones of Homo naledi were purposely placed in the Dinaledi Chamber and, perhaps, with the bones of an owl.

These are just two of probably many original human writings of scripture that have been found. In any cave where there have been indications of ‘human occupation,’ where debris is left behind such as animal bones, stone tools, evidence of fire pits, and most especially cave paintings and other artwork, were not places where humans resided for any length of time. Perhaps caves were used for shelter when it was required for protection from the elements for a short time, but not for long-term settlements. Caves were and always have been the original tombs for the dead. But not all the dead.

In the Anglican Book of Common Prayer burial service , “ashes to ashes, dust to dust,” is a phrase that is part of the funeral rite for burying the dead (Book of Common Prayer – Wikipedia). The point of which is that the body will eventually return to the ash and dust from which it was created:

“While ashes to ashes, dust to dust is not explicitly biblical, it is solidly based on Scripture. Genesis 3:19 reads, ‘By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return.’

The saying ashes to ashes, dust to dust is a powerful reminder that God created us from dust (see Genesis 2:7), and that due to sin, our physical bodies will all eventually return to dust.” (Is “ashes to ashes, dust to dust” in the Bible? | GotQuestions.org)

Two things that were important to our ancestors were stone for toolmaking and fire. Where fire is concerned:

“Evidence of occasional cooked food is found from 1 million years ago. Although this evidence shows that fire may have been used in a controlled fashion about 1 million years ago, other sources put the date of regular use at 400,000 years ago. Evidence becomes widespread around 50 to 100 thousand years ago, suggesting regular use from this time.” (Fire – Wikipedia)

I’m not attempting to pinpoint when human control of fire occurred, all I’m suggesting is that, controlled or not, humans would have long recognized that when a natural ecosystem on land caught fire, the resulting benefit was the rejuvenation of plant and animal life, and an increase in food sources:

“Every natural ecosystem on land has its own fire regime, and the organisms in those ecosystems are adapted to or dependent upon that fire regime. Fire creates a mosaic of different habitat patches, each at a different stage of succession. Different species of plants, animals, and microbes specialize in exploiting a particular stage, and by creating these different types of patches, fire allows a greater number of species to exist within a landscape.” (Fire – Wikipedia)

Fire eventually became an important tool for cooking and keeping warm, but even before that, destructive as it may have been, it would have been recognized for its ‘regime’ within the ecosystem. An ecosystem that they relied upon. Returning to ash and dust promoted new life, and new life provided more food sources. Therefore, would it not have been important for our ancestors to return to ash and dust as quickly as possible after death in order to promote new life for survival? The prayer, “ashes to ashes, dust to dust,” may have been first printed in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer in 1549, but this idea, setting aside the “prayer” aspect, could have predated it by millennia. Cremation, over burial, has been a part of many cultures for centuries.

Our human ancestors were intelligent individuals, they studied the world in which they lived every bit as much as we do today. They acquired knowledge, they shared that knowledge and they passed it on just like we do today. They did this by writing it down, first in stone, a simple language that began in caves that eventually evolved into architectural writing, still in stone. Writing, just like everything else, has its evolution. Today, the writing system that I am using is the letters and words of the English language to create this project, but it too has its evolution that can be traced back to:

“the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC.” (Writing system – Wikipedia)

When it comes to the Pit of Bones in the cave system of Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain:

“Associated finds include Ursus deningeri fossils and a hand axe called Excalibur. It has received a surprisingly high degree of attention, and a number of experts support the hypothesis that this particular Acheulean tool made of red quartzite seems to have served as a ritual offering, most likely for a funeral.” (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia)

Our human ancestors, when dumping the bodies of their dead down the “chimney” when the opening to the Pit of Bones existed 350,000 years ago, could simply have been a ritual burying, but the moment they dropped the single Acheulean hand axe made of red quartzite down into the shaft as well, that became writing. Stone was important for making tools, but stone was also some of the earliest forms of writing. The cave, or the mountain in which the cave existed was stone, itself telling a history of the geologic processes of the earth that resulted in its formation and its role in the ecosystem in which it is located. The red quartzite hand axe tells us everything about itself and more. It is an axe, both a tool and a weapon. As an axe, it is useful for many purposes in the real world. As a weapon, it is for those who reside in the underworld. It is red, which beyond just its color, can have multiple meanings, and it was quartzite, which again tells us more than just about its composition.

I might also suggest that the fossils of Ursus deningeri may have been a part of the writing as well, however, at this time I do not know, but the finding of the bones of a single owl in the Dinaledi Chamber may be an indication that both are a part of each story.

Virtually every culture, society, or religion has an origin story, and one of the most known is the origin story of the Bible’s Genesis 1:1-31, 2:1-3, and Genesis 2:4-25. But these are not stories about the beginnings of the universe or the earth, or of the sun, moon, and stars, or of the plants and animals, or of humans. All of this already exists. Genesis 1:1-31, 2:1-3 is the creation of the underworld, it is Sheol, Hades, Jahannnam, Niflheim, bottomless pit, abyss. Any culture’s origin story is the creation of whatever their idea of an underworld was. Two of these original origin stories, that of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo naledi, the creation of the underworld was The Pit of Bones and the Dinaledi Chamber.

Genesis 2:4-25, is the creation of a world for the dead, the ones who used the axe as a weapon instead of using it for what it was created, a tool. The formation of Adam out of the ground by God was from the bones of the disrespected individuals placed here in the Pit of Bones and the Dinaledi Chamber:


120. adam 
Strong’s Concordance
adam: man, mankind
Original Word: אָדָם
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: adam
Phonetic Spelling: (aw-dawm’)
Definition: man, mankind
NAS Exhaustive Concordance
Word Origin: from an unused word
Definition: man, mankind
NASB Translation
any man (2), anyone (4), anyone’s (1), being* (1), common sort* (1), human (19), infantry (1), low degree* (1), low* (1), man (363), man’s (20), man* (1), mankind (9), men (104), men of low degree* (1), men’s (3), men* (4), mortal (1), one (3), people (1), person (5), person* (1), persons (3), population (1), someone (1).
Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance
another, hypocrite, common sort, low, man mean, of low degree, person
From ‘adam; ruddy i.e. A human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.) — X another, + hypocrite, + common sort, X low, man (mean, of low degree), person.
see HEBREW ‘adam

(Strong’s Hebrew: 120. אָדָם (adam) — man, mankind (biblehub.com))

In both the NAS Exhaustive Concordance and Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance the translations for Adam, among others include; low degree, low, men of low degree and mean, of low degree. In the Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance we are told this name, “Adam,” comes from ‘adam, and to see Hebrew ‘adam:


119. adom
Strong’s Concordance
adom: to be red
Original Word: אָדָם
Part of Speech: Verb
Transliteration: adom
Phonetic Spelling: (aw-dam’)
Definition: to be red
NAS Exhaustive Concordance
Word Origin: from an unused word
Definition: to be red
NASB Translation
dyed red (6), red (3), ruddy (1).
Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance
be dyed, made red ruddy
To show blood (in the face), i.e. Flush or turn rosy — be (dyed, made) red (ruddy).

(Strong’s Hebrew: 119. אָדַם (adom) — to be red (biblehub.com))

It is here where we see one of the possible links to the color red or ruddy. Among the ruins of one of the earliest proposed human settlements, Çatalhöyük, human remains have been buried in various places throughout the site including:

“As a part of ritual life, the people of Çatalhöyük buried their dead within the village. Human remains have been found in pits beneath the floors and, especially, beneath hearths, the platforms within the main rooms, and under beds.

Disarticulated bones in some graves suggest that bodies may have been exposed in the open air for a time before the bones were gathered and buried. In some cases, graves were disturbed, and the individual’s head removed from the skeleton. These heads may have been used in rituals, as some were found in other areas of the community. In a woman’s grave spinning whorls were recovered and in a man’s grave, stone axes. Some skulls were plastered and painted with ochre to recreate faces, a custom more characteristic of Neolithic sites in Syria and at Neolithic Jericho than at sites closer by.” (Çatalhöyük – Wikipedia)

The above activity described does not indicate any type of respect for the bodies of these deceased individuals, in fact, it is quite the opposite. Notice, as well, that this was not a custom specific to this one location, but also of Neolithic sites in Syria and Neolithic Jericho. Skulls were plastered and painted with ochre to recreate faces:

Ochre (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər; from Ancient Greek ὤχρα (khra), from ὠχρός (ōkhrós) ‘pale’), or ocher in American English, is a natural clay earth pigment, a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colours produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as “red ochre” (or, in some dialects, ruddle).” (Ochre – Wikipedia)

The ochre painted on the skulls does not state the color red specifically in the above Wikipedia article, however, ruddy could be variations on the color red such as yellow to deep orange or brown, especially a light-brownish yellow. Consider the definition of ruddy:



from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.

  • adjective Having a healthy, reddish color.
  • adjective Reddish; rosy.
  • adjective chiefly British slang Used as an intensive.

from The Century Dictionary.

  • adjective Of a red color; reddish; inclining to red; rosy: as, a ruddy blaze; ruddy clouds; ruddy gold; ruddy cheeks.
  • adjective Glowing; cheery; bright.
  • Synonyms Ruddy, Rubicund, Rosy. Ruddy indicates a fresh and healthy red upon the human skin, or, by extension, upon skies, etc. Rubicund indicates an unnatural red in the face or some part of it, as the cheeks or the nose; it is especially associated with high living or intemperance in drink. Rosy generally indicates a charming, blooming red: as, rosy cheeks; but it is occasionally used in a bad sense.
  • transitive verb To make red or ruddy.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.

  • adjective Of a red color; red, or reddish.
  • adjective Of a lively flesh color, or the color of the human skin in high health.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • adjective Reddish in color, especially of the face, fire, or sky. 
  • adverb (Britain, slang) A mild intensifier, expressing irritation.
  • noun (informal) A ruddy duck. 
  • noun (informal) A ruddy ground dove.
  • verb (transitive) To make reddish in colour.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • adjective Inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life.
  • adjective Of a color at the end of the color spectrum (next to orange); resembling the color of blood or cherries or tomatoes or rubies.


from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

[Middle English rudi, from Old English rudig; see reudh- in Indo-European roots.]

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

Old English rudiġ.

(ruddy – definition and meaning (wordnik.com))

Wherever human bones are found, whether in a cave or buried in a grave, mummified and interned in a tomb, or buried under the floors of homes such as those at Çatalhöyük, these humans were not placed there out of a sign of respect. If you were a respected group member, then you were cremated and returned to ash and dust right after death. The stories of the humans in the Bible, among all the other scriptures, histories, legends, and myths of the world, were stories of immoral humans in the afterlife, and all these ancient ruins, or graveyards, are just the evolution of the writing which began in the Pit of Bones and the Dinaledi Chamber. Each of these individuals was an Adam.

If there is a character from a story written by humans, whether in a religious text of some culture, a legend of another culture, or the mythologies and histories of many cultures if that character claims some sort of divine origin, claims to be birthed of a god, conceived by a god, spoken to or directed to action by a god, given some divine right to persecute and oppress others in the name of a god, anointed by god, appointed by god, or a prophet of god these humans were examples of the human remains disrespectfully left behind in caves all around the world, buried in graves or tombs in or around the ruins of ancient cities or anywhere else, or mummified and interned in many, many other tombs. These stories are comedies, rom-coms, and dramedies. God, or gods, were not for the service and worship of the living. God, or the gods were the creators of the underworld, and it was here that the dead were in service to, feared, and worshipped them.

Yes, I agree that cremation does not always guarantee a body will be completely turned to ash. Pieces of bone and teeth can remain behind, however, these pieces left exposed to the elements will eventually turn to ash and dust far quicker than that of a whole skeleton, especially one buried in a grave, or mummified.

No human is perfect no matter how much one wishes to be perceived—every human wrongs another in some way throughout their life. In most cases, you know when you’ve done so, however, there are times you may not have recognized you wronged another, but in either case, it was up to you to make amends for the wrongs you committed. This did not mean to seek forgiveness from a god, it was to humble yourself and seek to make amends with the members of your group.

Every culture has a moral code to which its members attempt to adhere to with the core of these morals, not always specifically but somewhat similar to the Seven virtues – Wikipedia, and the opposite of which is Seven deadly sins – Wikipedia. I hate to point out the word, “sin,” because of its association with religion, specifically Christianity. I do not wish to rebuke anyone’s religion or their belief in it, I just want to reiterate that I am not singling out any one religion over another, or any religion at all for that matter. Going further, anywhere I need to refer to this idea of, “sin,” I will use the word, “vice,” instead as it is stated in the Wikipedia article on the seven deadly sins:

“The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, is a grouping and classification of vices within Christian teachings.”

Capital vices, or just, “vice,” are still ‘within Christain teachings,’ but I feel the word “vice,” has a far less religious aspect to it than does the word, “sin,” and is an alliteration with the word, “virtue.” Alliteration is a fun literary device, and this project is not just a thought-provoking endeavor, it is also meant to be an enjoyable exploration of human intelligence.

A soul, if one exists, has been a source of discussion among humans for millennia just like today. Humans have always been aware they are conscious of their existence that may or may not exist in some form among the rest of the animal kingdom. But, even if a soul existed it did not mean that there was some supernatural being that created it, ruled over it, and judged it.

Whether or not ancient humans punished one another for wrongs committed within the group based on the virtues the group held and what form those punishments took, I don’t know, and I’m not going to speculate on anything. However, cremation was for those worthy after death within the group, and whatever pieces of bone or teeth remained kept your soul, if one existed, bonded to the earth in a type of limbo until they turned to ash and dust as your penance for the wrongs you committed in life. And that was it, when these pieces finally turned to ash and dust your soul, if it existed, was set free to whatever it may be that exists after death, which could be nothing at all or some sort of utopian afterlife.

It wasn’t important, nor was it important to believe that those bodies deposited in some deep cave, grave, or tomb had souls that would reside in the underworld until their skeletons turned to ash and dust. You committed some vice within the group without making amends from the members for what you did or attempted to do and your punishment was to reside in the underworld after death for as long as it took for your bones to turn to ash and dust. If a soul existed, then you were at the mercy of the God or gods, the creators of the underworld. This was the joke, this is why these stories in these scriptures, all the various scriptures are and have always been comedies.

At this point, I wish to address a few issues that you may believe I am overlooking in my hypothesis:

  1. Making a correlation between the remains of Homo heidelbergensis of the Pit of Bones in Atapuerca, Spain and the Homo sapien remains of Çatalhöyük is quite a stretch given that we are talking about two distinct lines of species of the genus Homo, and a distance of time that equates to 100’s of thousands of years. An Acheulean hand axe made of red quartzite does not translate to the ochre paint applied to the plastered skulls of human remains found, even if that paint is red ochre, or that two stone axes were found buried with one individual in Çatalhöyük. And I agree. However, there are caves that have been discovered where human remains have been discovered, along with stone tools and other signs of human occupation, discarded animal bones, and most importantly, cave paintings, engravings, glyphs, and other forms of artwork attributed to various members of the genus Homo that fall within the timeline of both of these instances. Consider all the numerous items and pieces of artwork found in caves throughout the world and their similarities to those found in Çatalhöyük:

    “Vivid murals and figurines are found throughout the settlement, on interior and exterior walls. Distinctive clay figurines of women, notably the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük, have been found in the upper levels of the site. Predominant images include men with erect phalluses, hunting scenes, red images of the now extinct aurochs (wild cattle) and stags, and vultures swooping down on headless figures. Relief figures are carved on walls, such as of lionesses facing one another.
    Heads of animals, especially of cattle, were mounted on walls.”

    Could this all just be an evolution of the writing originally left behind in caves, into some of the first architectural writings?

    And, given the fact that both of these sites, the Pit of Bones and Rising Star were located by accident:

    “The archaeological significance of this part of the province of Burgos became increasingly apparent in the 20th century as the result of the construction of a metre-gauge railway (now disused) through the Atapuerca Mountains.” (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia)

    “On 13 September 2013, while exploring the Rising Star cave system, recreational cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker of the Speleological Exploration Club (SEC) found a narrow, vertically oriented “chimney” or “chute” measuring 12 m (39 ft) long with an average width of 20 cm (7.9 in). Then Hunter discovered a room 30 m (98 ft) underground (Site U.W.101 or UW-101, the Dinaledi Chamber), the surface of which was littered with fossil bones.” (Rising Star Cave – Wikipedia)

    It only stands to reason that:
    A. The caves already discovered between the times of these two instances were the same and expanded upon writings of scripture of the various species of the genus Homo, where the human remains, artifacts, paintings, engravings, glyphs etc., retell and expand upon the original writings. The various stone tools reveal an evolution, not just of the tools themselves, but add to the story they tell, the type and source of the paint used for the cave paintings and other engraving and artwork, and the stories they tell.
    B. Due to various natural processes, including plate tectonics, earthquakes, landslides, and floods there is the possibility of many more such accidental discoveries which will reveal more caves systems and writings that will connect the dots between the two instances in time, and between the various species of Homo.
  2. If the remains of the individuals found were the resting place of those members of the group who were disrespected by the group and not worthy of cremation, due to one or more, ‘vices,’ how do I explain the remains of:

    “a child with craniosynostosis were found and dated to 530,000 BP. The find was considered to provide evidence for caring of individuals with disabilities in early human populations.” (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia)

    At this moment, I am not going to speculate other than one possibility. I fully acknowledge that it is not just this instance where the remains of a child or children of all ages have been discovered along with the remains of adults in virtually every instance of human burial, from remains left in caves all the way up through graves and tombs, mummified or otherwise, especially infants from birth and early infancy. What vice could infants possibly exhibit that would warrant being condemned to the underworld? The only possibility that I am going to speculate on at this moment is that it was not the child themself, but perhaps the disability, or the disease, or the affliction that took the child’s life which was being condemned to the underworld. I am never fully committed to any one assumption I make, I am always open to other possibilities and perhaps will come back and amend my theory(ies) in the future.

    While writing this project, I came across a new Netflix documentary called, “Unknown, Cave of Bones,” about the Dinaledi Chamber and more of the discoveries made within. One of those discoveries I had not previously known about is that the remains of a child were also discovered here. And it appears, through the use of specialized imaging equipment located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, the child is holding what appears to be a human-made stone tool. This is not a definitive conclusion, but by all appearances, it seems reasonable that it is. Secondly, there are what appear to be carvings in the cave walls as well, hash marks.

    Anthropologist Lee Berger makes a number of claims in the documentary, all of which you can take the time to watch and find out what they are, however, in doing so he attracted a lot of criticism of his claims from fellow researchers as pointed out in The Guardian article, “Were small-brained early humans intelligent? Row erupts over scientists’ claim.” (Were small-brained early humans intelligent? Row erupts over scientists’ claim | Palaeontology | The Guardian) To these so-called, “experts in their field,” I say, “who the fuck cares what you say.”

    And I understand that I am also saying this to Lee Berger as well. Where he does acknowledge that Homo naledi may have been intelligent to the point that they buried their dead, among other things, I totally agree, but I disagree with his hypothesis that in burying, “these,” dead showed some kind of caring or compassion for these individuals. It was not. It was writing.

    None of these, “experts,” have any idea when intelligence began. They can speculate and guess all they want, which is exactly what they do, “guess,” because if they all believe that these histories of the past were real, then they are truly laughable. The evidence is staring them right in the face, and yet they all ignore it. They apply modern social concepts, modern social ideologies, and modern social norms to the past ignoring all the evidence. They all say it, but they not only do not listen to themselves, they do not listen to each other. Fuck the experts.

    Consider this article, “Family trees from the European Neolithic shed light on social organization (phys.org).” In this article:

    “In their study, the scientists analyzed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 94 individuals buried at Gurgy, combined with strontium isotope ratio values, mitochondrial DNA (maternal lineages) and Y-chromosome (paternal lineages) data, age-at-death, and genetic sex. Two family trees could be reconstructed, the first connecting 64 individuals over seven generations is the largest pedigree reconstructed from ancient DNA to date, while the second connects twelve individuals over five generations.
    Exploring the pedigrees revealed a strong patrilineal pattern, where each generation is almost exclusively linked to the previous generation through the biological father, which connects the entire group of Gurgy through the paternal line.
    At the same time, combined evidence from mitochondrial lineages and strontium stable isotope revealing a non-local origin of most women suggested the practice of patrilocality, meaning that the sons stayed where they were born, and had children with females from outside of Gurgy. Settling in with the male partner’s home community is known as virilocality.
    By contrast, most of the lineage adult daughters are missing, in line with female exogamy, potentially indicating a reciprocal exchange system. Interestingly, these “new incoming” female individuals were only very distantly related to each other, meaning that they must have come from a network of nearby communities, instead of just one nearby group. This lends support to the existence of a relatively wide and potentially fluid exchange network comprising many (including smaller) groups.” (Family trees from the European Neolithic shed light on social organization (phys.org))

    And, interestingly enough:

    “In the frame of this patrilocal system, one male individual from which everyone in the largest family tree was descended could be identified as the “founding father” of the cemetery. His burial is unique at the site, as his skeletal remains were buried as a secondary deposit inside the grave pit of a woman, for whom, unfortunately, no genomic data could be obtained. Therefore, his bones must have been brought from wherever he had originally died to be reburied at Gurgy.” (Family trees from the European Neolithic shed light on social organization (phys.org))

    Once again, we have a male individual who, after his death was brought to this location, and has been buried inside the grave of a woman who curiously enough, “no genomic data could be obtained.” As far as I can tell as previously stated in the article, the genomic data of all the other female remains were viable, just not this one. Setting aside that this was a burial site of an ancient group of individuals where the dead were cared for and compassionately laid to rest, and instead was scripture, doesn’t it read a lot like the story of Adam and Eve and the lineages of their offspring that followed? It is almost like these ancient peoples were intelligent enough to know not to leave genomic data of this one specific woman, as if she was built out of the rib of the male. Of course, it is their ancient origin story for the area of the world in which they existed, that of Gurgy, but still very similar to all other origin stories. Their underworld.
  3. When it comes to the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system, at the moment of this writing I am aware of only this one area of the cave having been explored and excavated at this time, whether or not any other areas exist of the cave and/or is being explored and excavated currently or in the future may remain to be seen. I am aware of other caves in South Africa that do exist and have been explored and excavated for archaeological and anthropological purposes, and I am not discounting or ignoring their existence by any means. I simply wanted to point out that the remains in the Dinaledi Chamber appeared to be placed in the chamber on purpose by the members of the group.

    However, when it comes to the cave system in Atapuerca, Spain, The Pit of Bones is not the only excavated site, there have been other discoveries in the area made that both pre-date and post-date the remains found in the Pit of Bones. The oldest fossil discovered is a 1.4 million-year-old hominid jawbone with a tooth, all the way up through to Neolithic ceramic objects. But what I most want to point out is level TD-6 of the Trinchera Dolina excavation, specifically that of the human remains that point to cannibalism:

    “TD-6 (Aurora stratum): From 1994 on, over 160 bone fragments of at least eleven hominids were found, between 850,000 and 780,000 years old, which makes them at least 250,000 years older than any other hominid yet discovered in Western Europe. More than 30% of the bones have manipulation marks that suggest cannibalism.[8] Classification of these remains is still being debated; suggestions range from Homo erectus to Homo heidelbergensis and Homo antecessor. Some researchers, who are familiar with the stratigraphic material of Gran Dolina, argue that Homo antecessor may be the ancestor of Homo heidelbergensis, who in turn gave rise to Homo neanderthalensis. Retouched flake and core stone tools were also found.
    The hominid remains show unmistakable signs of having been butchered and consumed in the same way as animals whose bones were also found in this stratum.[1] All bones belonged to young individuals, ranging from infancy to late teenhood.[8] A study of this case considers it an instance of “nutritional” cannibalism, where individuals belonging to hostile or unrelated groups were hunted, killed, and eaten much like animals. Based on the placement and processing of human and animal remains, the authors conclude that cannibalism was likely a “repetitive behavior over time as part of a culinary tradition”, not caused by starvation or other exceptional circumstances.[9] They suggest that young individuals (more than half of which were children under ten) were targeted because they “posed a lower risk for hunters” and because this was an effective means for limiting the growth of competing groups.[10] (Archaeological site of Atapuerca – Wikipedia)

    I am not disputing that cannibalism exists, it does. There have been several documented cases of cannibalism in the modern world, so to deny that it may not have happened in the ancient world as well is wrong of me. I am simply questioning whether there is a bias in place here categorizing that the,

    “30% of the bones have manipulation marks,”

    as an indication of cannibalism. According to the experts,

    “a study of this case considers it an instance of “nutritional” cannibalism.”

    Sure, I would suppose that human flesh does have a nutritional value, but they also conclude that,

    “cannibalism was likely a “repetitive behavior over time as part of a culinary tradition”, not caused by starvation or other exceptional circumstances.”

    Therefore, ancient humans between 850-780,000 years ago not only recognized the “nutritional value,” of human flesh, but they also took part in a, “culinary tradition,” of cannibalism. That seems like very exceptional humans to me if that is true. What do the experts mean exactly by, “manipulation marks?” Simply because markings appear on animal bones found alongside human remains with similar markings does not necessarily mean cannibalism. If they are remarkable enough at this time of human evolution to recognize nutrition and establish a tradition, does it not stand to reason that they may also be inquisitive?

    Perhaps these, “young individuals, ranging from infancy to late teenhood,” died young, younger than most other individuals of causes that weren’t immediately evident and the members of the group were performing a primitive autopsy to try and discover what that cause was. Maybe, maybe not. I could be making a spectacularly wild assumption about the intelligence and inquisitiveness of our ancestors, but to be honest, I would much rather make that assumption and be wrong than just jump straight to the conclusion of, “cannibalism.” And it does state, “The authors conclude that cannibalism was likely.

    These people not only gathered food, but they also hunted and they’ve been hunting for a very long time, does it not stand to reason that during this time they never caught an animal that was not at some stage of pregnancy? Or a diseased animal where the meat was unconsumable? Would it not stand to reason that they too, just like us today, would want to understand what exactly was going on, and compare their findings in animals to their dead as well?

    Forensic science is a useful field of study, but it is not perfect. There have been many instances in the modern day where forensics has made mistakes, and studies have been done that have shown where misinterpretation of the evidence has occurred, especially where bias is concerned. “Manipulation marks,” on bone can indicate skinning, gutting, and meat removal, but it can also mean something entirely different, especially when we consider the primitive stone tools being used.

    The bones of the child found in the Pit of Bones did show signs of, “evidence for caring of individuals with disabilities in early human populations.” In order to show evidence of caring for individuals with disabilities, do you not need to know that the disability exists and what it is, what may or may not be its cause, and the best possible way to care for that disability?

    It is another significant stretch of time between both instances of cannibalism if it was cannibalism, and caring for an individual with a disability, a period of approximately 500,000 years, but this is one specific area of the world, namely that of Atapuerca, Spain. The stretch of time between Atapuerca, Spain, and Çatalhöyük is a significant stretch of time as well, but this is between two very distinct parts of the world, which is why I believe that neither caves nor ancient city ruins were places of human occupation for long periods of time, if at all. Humans have always been nomadic hunter/gatherers up until the recent past. Far less than the anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians will have us believe.

Yes, humans of the past existed in their individual groups, they moved around following the food they needed to survive as hunter/gatherers. They were intelligent beings, and they knew about agriculture far, far longer than we give them credit for, but they never used it to become sedentary. In times of need, they employed agriculture and animal husbandry, such as during extreme droughts and drastic climatic changes. But they never allowed it to take over their lives. They grew food when they had to, but only when they had to. They aided the animals by helping purge disease from the herd, helping feed and water them, and helping in reproduction that promoted the best genetic traits for the survival of the species during these extreme times.

These groups came together, they shared their resources, and they intermingled and reproduced, not only within the individual groups themselves but between the various groups as well. If a man or woman wanted to leave their group and join another they did so, especially if it was to become a couple for life or even if was just until the next time the two groups came together. Or a person just wanted to join the new group for various other reasons, perhaps they met a member of the other group who was LGBTQ1A+ like themselves, who knows, but nobody cared, as long as you made your contribution to the survival of the group, anyone was welcome to join. Or males and females copulated, with the woman possibly becoming pregnant by a male from another group, and then they went their separate ways with their own group, having not become a couple at all for any length of time. The woman, being pregnant by another man outside her group, was not frowned upon, was not excommunicated from the group, and was not considered anything other than what she was, a member of the group who was pregnant. And that child, when born was accepted and cared for by the community in which it was born.

They were groups of humans, tribes if you want to call it that, but they weren’t tribal. It wasn’t important to identify with a specific tribal identity or culture, it wasn’t important to name your group or claim an area of the world as yours. Whatever stories they created to share accumulated knowledge with other groups, song and dance, new tools, food, clothing, and shelter were important. Anyone or anything that prevented this were the characters, places, groups, and objects that were condemned to the underworld. All the writing is there for us to read in all these places I have identified above and so many more.

The most important thing that occurred when these groups came together was to exchange knowledge. The difficulty in sharing this knowledge was the ability to communicate between the various groups and the languages they spoke, however they may have been spoken. But stone was always the universal language, and the evolution of that language from caves and stone tools, through engravings in stone and bone, carvings in stone and bone, glyphs, paintings, and finally, stone architecture.

All these ancient ruins served many purposes simultaneously, including but not limited to:

  1. Schools. The language of stone architecture taught all the branches of science, math, universal reading and writing, philosophy, origins of the universe, the stars, solar systems, the earth, and life on earth through all of its various geologic eras and events. Humans had a fundamental understanding of the world and how it all worked and how it all came together. And just like today, if there was something they didn’t know, they did not, “fill in the gap,” with God, a god, or the gods. They always knew it was about observation, experimentation, and the accumulation of facts and evidence. In life, in the real world, God was a word for science, and the gods were all the various branches of science. They did not worship these gods, they did not sacrifice to these gods, and they did not fear these gods. They very much understood that just because they didn’t know something, it was just a matter of time before the answer would be revealed.
  2. Stages. The scriptures were written in stone, but the stories they told were acted out as comedic entertainment and as an extension of the school lessons.
  3. Gaming and LARPing grounds. As an extension of the acting, games were played as live-action role play, in which battle scenes were re-created, and fire was used to cremate the dead that were always brought back to these places as their final role in life. These kingdoms, or states, that each of these ancient places was once thought to be were not human kingdoms, they were the anthropomorphized kingdoms of the natural world, insect kingdoms, plant kingdoms, and animal kingdoms, just like what occurs after a fire that destroys a natural habitat, “Different species of plants, animals, and microbes specialize in exploiting a particular stage, and by creating these different types of patches, fire allows a greater number of species to exist within a landscape.”
  4. Garbage dumps. There is nothing new that the natural world hasn’t already “invented.” Tools of every kind already exist somewhere in the natural world it is only through observation and copying these tools that they become useful to humans. But these tools, as useful as they may be always have an alternative use, a weapon, a means of control, or a means of oppression. They each have their virtues and their vices. It is here in these ancient ruins that the vices these tools possess are left behind. Whatever artifact the archaeologists find represents the vice that this object possesses and is left behind for the occupants of the underworld.
  5. Graveyards. If you are buried, mummified, entombed, or just dropped into a hole in the earth, you were being given to the realm of the underworld and the gods that ruled there. Whether it was a vice of your own or the vice of a tool, this was your realm in the afterlife. This was where scripture originated, and the stories that were told were to make you the butt of the joke. If a soul existed, then this was its punishment for the vices you exhibited in your life, it was left here with all the garbage, the vices the tools possessed, and the gods who were your masters. Your cremated remains, and whatever pieces of bone or teeth were left here, as your penance until those pieces turned to ash and dust as well.
  6. Communication, Information storage, and transfer. Scripture is the original computer hard drive.

Adam, the first man in Genesis 2:4-25 was every single one of these humans left behind, thrown into the pit, and I’m not saying that the Pit of Bones in Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain, or the first body thrown into this pit is the first ever writing of scripture, or the first ever Adam, but it is just one of the first-ever scriptural writings of Genesis 2:4-25. The bones were the playthings of God or the gods of the underworld. Adam was not a man, Adam was mankind (sorry ladies I am not trying to be sexist, I was not the person who came up with the word, if the ancients used mankind in place of humankind I do not believe it was a sexist thing, perhaps the female members of the group considered themselves as mankind as well, or perhaps the use of the word mankind was a pejorative use because it is indicative a male vice such as sexism) and Eve was not a woman, Eve was Adam’s alter, his dual self. Adam is ego and Eve is his alter-ego.

Consider Genesis 1:26, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness” and 1:27, “So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.” This has nothing to do with humans, this is everything. Everything in the universe has a duality, an ego and an alter ego, yin and yang, good and bad, positive and negative. Water gives life to virtually every living thing on the planet, but even water itself can take away life. Drowning, flooding, and water toxemia can all be fatal to humans, conversely being without water is equally fatal.

Reading scripture literally is okay, there’s nothing wrong with that, it was meant to be read literally, but you’re not supposed to take it seriously or believe that any of it factually occurred, because it did not occur other than in the minds of its authors. These characters and events are laughable, but they also teach, about everything.

God, or science, created the Garden of Eden, the big bang, the universe, the stars, the planets, the earth, and the building blocks for establishing life on Earth with all its natural wonders and the inventions of every possibility. It created a man, not a human man, but an existence of every kind, past and present. Our ancient ancestors could never possibly have known about subatomic particles, quarks and anti-quarks, leptons and anti-leptons, neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, but by observations of the natural world they could hypothesize that something exists, just like we hypothesize about the nature of the universe today, develop the mathematical formulae and experiment to prove or disprove the theory. They didn’t know about these sub-atomic particles, but they did not attribute them to a god, they just accepted that they didn’t know yet and left it to future generations to discover. God in real life is always about the future discoveries made in science.

A single-celled organism doesn’t have a consciousness or awareness of the environment in which it exists, nor does it seek to study that environment. It simply exists as the single-celled organism that it is, but it still possesses its duality, its good and bad, its positive and negative, its yin and yang. Adam, and by extension, Eve is the duality of a human, but it is not whether Adam/male or Eve/Female is positive or negative, they are interchangeable depending on the nature of the story and how it is read. Was Eve truly the progenitor of, “original sin,” simply because she was led astray by the serpent, the negative? Or was she really the positive, because she ate of the fruit of the tree of wisdom? God, or science gave us the universe and everything in it, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” This is not meant to be taken literally. The plants, the animals, the birds, and the food are metaphorical representations of the tools that have already been invented. Tools that, through the use of observation of the natural world, we copy to improve our lives. But without a consciousness of our existence, we are like that single-celled organism. Adam, in following the rule set out by his creator was that single-celled organism, simply existing in the world in which he, “was placed.” Eve was the awakening of a consciousness, whatever that consciousness may be.

God commanded Adam, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.” And this holds true. Every possible invention exists in the natural world, Eve awakened the possibility to observe and copy all these inventions that can make life better, not just for humans, but for all life on the planet. It is Adam who is the progenitor of, “original sin,” because if these tools are used for their vices and not their virtues, then he will certainly die. And this is why the Acheulean hand axe made of red quartzite was tossed in the Pit of Bones along with the dead. Each one of these dead is an Adam, and the tool, is not only its vice, it is a representation of the human vices that can be exploited from that tool.

Wherever in the world a human body is found buried and whatever objects they may have been buried with represents a vice that person or that object possessed or represented. Consider two bodies in Çatalhöyük:

” In a woman’s grave spinning whorls were recovered and in a man’s grave, stone axes.” (Çatalhöyük – Wikipedia)

The stone axes found in the man’s grave could be similar scripture to the stone axe found in the Pit of Bones, or maybe something completely different, it all depends on the context. The spinning whorls in the woman’s grave could represent that she didn’t want to share her knowledge of the craft, or at the very worst, made use of them as a weapon, a garrote (here I am speculating in the most extreme, I have no possible way to prove or disprove this). But the stories of both have to be read in the context of the whole scripture that is Çatalhöyük.

After Eve awakened consciousness, she and Adam gave birth to two sons, Cain and Abel. Cain brought an offering of fruits of the soil, and Abel brought an offering of fat portions. The “Lord” looked on with favor towards Abel, but not on Cain, so Cain killed his brother. Cain’s punishment for his offense was not, “an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth,” it was simply, “When you work the ground, it will no longer yield its crops for you. You will be a restless wanderer on the earth.” Cain’s vice was jealousy of his brother, Adam and Eve gave birth to jealousy, but they also gave birth to what elicits jealousy. If Abel was looked upon favorably by the “Lord,” then could the “Lord” not simply bring Abel back to life? He did give life to two clay forms previously, and the Bible has a number of dead people being brought back to life, not by God, but by his, “prophets.” The “Lord” did not bring Abel back to life because Abel had to die, as a lesson to God and Cain. For Cain, that, “sin is crouching at your door,” is not the serpent, not the devil, it is both God and Abel. Cain, or jealousy is wrong, but eliciting jealousy in another is just as wrong, perhaps even more so. The source of envy has to die in order to overcome jealousy. Cain’s lesson was not to become Abel and elicit jealousy in another. The “Lord, or God is not a good entity, God itself is always trying to be a better thing, whatever that thing may be. God looked on with favor towards Abel and elicited jealousy in Cain which resulted in murder. God realized it was wrong to favor one over the other because doing so caused jealousy and murder, therefore it only cursed Cain, but it still had to allow Abel to perish.

When a law is set down, such as, “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors…,” is fine enough in itself, but there always has to be a counter to that law, a positive to the negative, male to the female, yin to its yang. Therefore, there should be a counter-commandment opposite this such as, “Thou shalt not elicit covetousness in another,” Or something to that effect. That is why these laws, whether in the Old Testament (Tanakh) or anywhere else in the ancient world are hilariously numerous and ridiculous. It’s very easy to make laws against things that are detrimental to society, “Thou shalt not kill,” “Thou shalt not steal,” etc., but it is very difficult to make counter laws. What exactly is the alternative to, “do not steal,” it means I have to consider everything that I own is not actually mine, and the idea of “property” becomes non-existent.

Consider the woman buried with the two spinning whorls, she was taught by the members of her group to make the tools and use them, but if she refused to share that skill with the next generation, she was stealing. Stealing intellectual knowledge. She had no right of claim to the knowledge, she was not the one who observed it in the natural world and copied it. But by hoarding that skill in an effort to gain an advantage, celebrity, power, or wealth of some kind within the group, she was not an individual worthy of cremation. It is for each individual human to consider the laws that a group deems necessary for the benefit of the group, and to create their own personal ever-evolving counter-laws to each of these, based on many prevailing factors in the moment.

Let’s look at Cain’s punishment for his offense. He is cursed to the point where the ground will no longer yield its crops and will be a restless wanderer on the earth. If the Theists truly wanted to make a case for creationism, or a Creator, it is Cain who should represent life on Earth. Virtually every single living thing on Earth is a restless wanderer on it. All life continually moves around the planet in search of the food and conditions that will sustain it, even plants. The plant itself does not get up and move to a new area, but its seeds are carried away in all manner of forms, wind and water, animals, insects, and birds. Plants evolve to make their seeds favorable to conditions that will carry them away one way or another. If the conditions for life become unfavorable to a lifeform, it finds a new home, it follows its source of food.

Cain made an offering of fruits of the soil, and Abel the fat of the firstborn. Again, this represents that the knowledge and use of agricultural practices has its place, but it is not meant to be dependent upon. Abel had to die so that he could no longer elicit, perhaps one or more of, greed, sloth, or gluttony in humans that comes with the ease of mass-producing animals for food. And Cain had to be cursed for the same reasons as growing seed creates these same vices.

Look at Cain’s concern, about his punishment, “My punishment is more than I can bear. Today you are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.” Moving away from the place where the ecosystem has sustained you is scary, one never knows what conditions are outside of the ecosystem in which you have thrived, what new predators there will be, and yes there could be a predator in which you are unable to evolve fast enough to combat, and may in turn, become extinct, but that’s the chance you have to take because to stay where you are means extinction as well. However, if you can move past those threats, there may always be a place where you can continue to survive and bring with you the tools you observed and copied to survive the threats you faced in that journey.

Finally Cain, “made love to his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was then building a city, and he named it after his son Enoch.” How can Cain build a city? A city is only sustainable as long as the ground, “yields its crops,” and this goes against Cain’s punishment. Did Cain’s punishment come to an end? No, Cain did, he died and the city he was building was his tomb, the vice of jealousy, among the others was relegated back to the underworld where they are supposed to be.

Now apply this to God, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus. “God,” is science, Mary is simply Mother, Mother Nature, and the Mother of Invention. Joseph is anything that observes “God,” and copies these “inventions” that nature has created for survival, the “carpenter.” Jesus is every single one of those tools that exist, that we observe in nature, and that we copy. Those tools have every possibility of performing good things, “miracles,” their inherent virtues. But they also have their vices, and their ability to oppress and destroy. Jesus had to die, both for the virtues and the vices of all these tools, and the vices humans exploit through these tools, but he came back to life to return the virtues of these tools. He keeps the vices, or attempts to keep the vices with him in the “underworld.” But these alter-tools do return occasionally to bring about the end of something. Eventually, a star will supernova and destroy its solar system. Eventually, a predator will overexploit its food source and, unable or unwilling to adapt, will not only wipe out the lifeform that sustains it, but itself as well. And eventually, an event will occur that results in extinction, five of which have happened already. If meteors and comets of all shapes and sizes had not come together to form the planet Earth, then none of us exists. But a single meteor, according to the prevailing theory, wiped out the dinosaurs. There is an end that always comes, but there is never any way to predict or, “prophesize,” when that will be.

All these ancient scriptures have to be read metaphorically, but they have to be applied to the natural world in every possible way from the universe as a whole down to the smallest possible particle, and not with just a singular mindset.

And that is what all these ancient places, the caves, and the ruins, and all the stories, histories, and characters, are, metaphorical stories of the natural world that surrounds us, anthropomorphized and written in the form of comedies to teach. The metaphorical meanings are whatever a person wants to take from the stories in an effort to continually write and apply the opposing law that counters the group’s accepted laws. The group can write the laws, “thou shalt not…,” but it is the responsibility of the individual to write the counter-law, based on the meaning they take from scripture, and applying it to each individual situation or person they may encounter throughout their lives. This is what occurs in the natural world all the time.

At the moment that I am writing this the year is 2023. But this number has no more meaning of a point in time than does any number we want to assign it. Even if we could pinpoint an exact date that, not just the genus Homo, but the specific species Homo Sapiens came into existence, then a more accurate date could be, as of today, July 1, 300,000 (Human – Wikipedia), give or take, at the current scientific consensus. Or should it be when humans started exhibiting, “behavioral modernity,” which occurred about, “160,000 – 60,000,” years ago (Human – Wikipedia), in which case there are 100,000 possible numbers we could assign to the current year? Or should it be when the “Neolithic Revolution,” began approximately 13,000 years ago (Human – Wikipedia)? Of course, in the case of the last two examples, you would have to believe that Homo sapiens are responsible for both, “behavioral modernity, and the “agricultural revolution.” But consider that, in the last 50-60 years the scientific consensus on Neanderthals has changed so dramatically that it is an embarrassment to even acknowledge what the scientific community, and society in general, believed and taught about them in the early twentieth century.

Anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians use a number of methods for dating history, and I don’t dispute any of these methods. Some of these methods are, but not limited to:

Radiocarbon dating – Wikipedia

Radiometric dating – Wikipedia

Chronological dating – Wikipedia

Thermoluminescence dating – Wikipedia

Today, I can go into any library, bookstore, or online source and find numerous books on just about any genre of fiction, historical fiction, science fiction, crime fiction, war fiction, really just too many to list. Fiction in which the present is brought into the past, the future is brought into the present, and the past is brought into the present and the future. There are genres where the main characters depicted can either be good or evil, such as vampires, wizards, witches, leaders, rulers, and kings of all kinds. But not even limited to fiction, non-fiction books can be written with numerous viewpoints, most notably biographies. Biographies can be written both from a viewpoint of the person being, having done, or doing something good and conversely from an entirely opposite point of view. And each one of them has merit, provided the evidence for both is supported.

There have been all kinds of writings discovered by archaeologists and historians in all manner of mediums, and I am not disputing any of this. Very few of these writings, however, are actual first-person accounts, with most of them being orally transmitted second and third-person accounts, very much removed by time, of the writer themselves.

A specific form of writing is what is called pseudepigrapha (Pseudepigrapha – Wikipedia), in which the author is not the true author. I hypothesize that many, if not all, writings attributed to one person were never written by that one single person, nor did that person ever exist. I will refer to the Greeks, as they are some of the most widely known worldwide. I believe people such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle never existed as individuals, however, their creators, The Socratists, the Platonists, and the Aristotelians existed and created these individuals. But, we’re not talking about people who existed approximately 2,500 years ago, we are talking about humans that have existed perhaps since the genus Homo existed.

If the experts in the fields of archaeology, philosophy, and history truly read all these great writings then they would realize that if we as a society choose a form of government known as a “democracy,” then those experts would know that in an election the true winner and who should become leader is the person who placed in third place and not first or second, but third. Even an incumbent seeking re-election should always be seeking to come in third place among all the candidates. Read your histories and your philosophers and you will see that this is true, and you will understand why it is true.

When groups of humans came together to share the knowledge they observed and copied in the natural world, they also discussed the philosophical implications of what this knowledge revealed and how it could be used for good and bad, every bit as much as we do today. They created these pretend societies, and these fake individuals, the philosophers, the kings, or whatever type of ruler that may or may not have existed, the historians, and whatever vice they could personify in one way or another. It was not the philosophy of Socrates himself that was wrong, it was the idolizing of Socrates as the single source of this philosophy that was. Many, many humans over time have contributed to the philosophy of Socrates, and to be virtuous, it was not to claim any single right to these ideas, the vice was Socrates. The same goes for Plato and Aristotle. That is why we find their busts, statues, or whatever other likenesses of them in these ancient places. The individual, the idolatry of the individual was left behind in the garbage dump that these places were, but the ideas remain and persist throughout time.

We can scientifically date many things we have discovered in these ancient places, but at the same time, humans are very peculiar storytellers, and we are very ingenious when it comes to telling stories. Sure, we can date a piece of pottery based on its location in the stratigraphic layers in which it was found, as being older than the piece of bronze previously discovered above it in its stratigraphic layer, therefore the bronze age followed the pottery age.

There are many ancient ruins that still stand as they were built in the time that they were built, abandoned by the people, and taken over by the natural environment in which they were built. And yet, even after all those thousands of years, they are never buried any more than a few inches of new soil. And then there are those sites, buried deep in the ground, sometimes built, buried, and rebuilt on top of one another, and still buried once again. And within each layer over top of another a progression of technological advancements, pottery, bronze, iron, and so on (and yes, I realize I may not be entirely accurate in that line of progression, I am not trying to be accurate, I am just trying to show a relative progression), all of which may be true. Or, humans in an act of storytelling, built ruins and buried them with pieces of pottery to tell a story. Built more ruins on top with different pieces of paraphernalia such as bronze and pottery to tell those same stories again, plus new ones. And again and again. Gobekli Tepe is built in three layers, maybe more. The city of Troy has 9 layers. Çatalhöyük has 18 layers. There are examples of this worldwide of the very same thing occurring over and over again.

The oldest layer of Çatalhöyük is dated at 7,100 BC, with the youngest layer at 5,600 BC. 18 layers over a period of 1,500 years, which works out to 83 years per layer. That’s basically a single generation rebuilding the city, one on top of another, one right after the other. This is not a place where people resided, this was scripture.

These various dating methods can serve their purposes, and create a timeline of events, but humans can be storytellers, storytellers of all kinds including comedic pranksters, and there are many, many pranksters in human history.

Consider the stories of the “Sea Peoples – Wikipedia.” A group of people who, by all accounts are recorded in history throughout various cultures, most notably Egyptian hieroglyphs. There are theories on who these people may have been but currently remain unidentified. They are reported to have sailed around the Mediterranean and attacked many of these past civilizations. But what if these people never existed to begin with, very much as I hypothesize that none of these ancient civilizations existed other than through the stories humans told? The stories of the sea people are far, far older than they are given credit for. The story of Christopher Columbus existed far, far longer than what we are taught to believe.

The sea peoples were a metaphor for not only travel by water, whatever form of water travel that may have been, but travel in general, from one area of the world they knew to another possibly completely alien world to them. Boats are an excellent tool for getting across great distances of water, but in doing so, humans can encounter natural environments, rich in all kinds of new sources of food, new groups of humans, and new species of humans as well, especially humans who may have not developed their technologies as quickly as the “sea peoples,” have. The newly encountered people may be considered, “savages.” The vice of the boat is encountering these new environments and these new humans with the idea of, “conquering and oppressing,” what this new world cannot defend against.

The origins of the stories of the sea peoples may be discovered that pre-date what is written about them in Egypt and other ancient places, or it may never happen. However, oral tradition far predates written tradition.

What if the oral tradition of the sea peoples traveled originally from somewhere in Africa, up through North Africa, the Mediterranean, the Levant, into Europe and Asia, and down through the various Pacific Islands, across to Central America, and finally into the tropical islands of the Atlantic oceans? Human beings are exceptional storytellers, and we have an amazing ability to tell the same or similar stories up through, between, and amongst various groups of people, cultures, civilizations, times, and locations worldwide. The evidence for this is everywhere.

There are many theories on the origins of the sea peoples, and one of them is that they may have come from southern Europe. None of them are in any way conclusive, and I could be making a very extraordinary connection between something that is inconclusive with a history of a well-documented historical individual. However, about Christopher Columbus:

“Columbus had always claimed that the conversion of non-believers was one reason for his explorations, and he grew increasingly religious in his later years. Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges (1502), detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled, and a Book of Prophecies (1505), in which passages from the Bible were used to place his achievements as an explorer in the context of Christian eschatology.”

“The Book of Prophecies (in SpanishEl Libro de las Profecías) is a compilation of apocalyptical religious revelations written by Christopher Columbus towards the end of his life, probably with the assistance of his friend, the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio. It was written between September 1501 and March 1502, with additions until about 1505.

This journal of sorts conveys the medieval notion that in order for the end of the world or the second coming of Jesus Christ to occur, certain events must first be enacted:

  1. Christianity must be spread throughout the world.
  2. The Garden of Eden must be found – It was the common belief in the Middle Ages that the biblical Garden of Eden must have been on the top of a crag or mountaintop so that it would not have been affected by the first destruction of the world by flood. Upon arriving in Venezuela in 1498, Columbus may have thought that the verdant crags of Venezuela bore the garden of the Old Testament of the Bible.
  3. A Last Crusade must take back the Holy Land from the Muslims, and that when Christ comes, he will come back in the place he lived and died: Jerusalem.
  4. Last World Emperor must be chosen – Columbus had chosen, at least in his mind, that the Catholic MonarchsFerdinand and Isabella, would fulfill this position due to the vast imperial power and religious conviction the Spanish monarchs claimed. A last world emperor would be necessary to lead the aforementioned crusade against the Muslims and to greet Christ at Jerusalem once the previous steps had been completed.

Such notions were not new to the period in which Columbus lived. Medieval monastic writers, such as Joachim of Fiore, had made similar claims, which strongly influenced Columbus’ apocalyptic writings and beliefs.

The manuscript was written by Columbus following his third voyage to the New World. The original manuscript is mostly in Spanish with some Latin. The manuscript was translated into English with commentary by Delno C. West and August Kling and published by the University of Florida Press, Gainesville, in 1991.” (Book of Prophecies – Wikipedia)

Christopher Columbus is another individual who believed he had some divine mission to accomplish, and, we have other connections:

“Contemporary descriptions of Columbus, including those by his son Fernando and Bartolomé de las Casas, describe him as taller than average, with light skin (often sunburnt), blue or hazel eyes, high cheekbones and freckled face, an aquiline nose, and blond to reddish hair and beard (until about the age of 30, when it began to whiten). One Spanish commentator described his eyes using the word garzos, now usually translated as “light blue”, but it seems to have indicated light grey-green or hazel eyes to Columbus’s contemporaries. The word rubios can mean “blond”, “fair”, or “ruddy”. Although an abundance of artwork depicts Columbus, no authentic contemporary portrait is known.” (Christopher Columbus – Wikipedia)

“An aquiline nose (also called a Roman nose) is a human nose with a prominent bridge, giving it the appearance of being curved or slightly bent. The word aquiline comes from the Latin word aquilinus (“eagle-like”), an allusion to the curved beak of an eagle. While some have ascribed the aquiline nose to specific ethnic, racial, or geographic groups, and in some cases associated it with other supposed non-physical characteristics (i.e. intelligence, status, personality, etc., see below), no scientific studies or evidence support any such linkage. As with many phenotypical expressions (e.g. ‘widow’s peak‘, eye color, earwax type) it is found in many geographically diverse populations.” (Aquiline nose – Wikipedia)

Click on it and continue reading the entire above Wikipedia article.

Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, some of which are closely related. True eagles comprise the genus Aquila. Most of the 68 species of eagles are from Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, and 3 in Australia.” (Eagle – Wikipedia)

Click on it and continue reading the entire above Wikipedia article.

Having been born in the latter half of the twentieth century and obviously still alive in the twenty-first century, do I believe in the history of both these times? Yes. Do I believe in the histories of the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries? Yes. The seventeenth and sixteenth centuries? Not so much. The fifteenth centuries and before? I seriously question much, if not all of it. I believe the stories of the sea peoples came true in the mid to late seventeenth century (maybe a little earlier) and later when we take into account the atrocities committed by European colonialists in the Americas. Sometime in the last 400-500 years, we forgot that these, “cities,” we were building were scripture, we forgot we were always meant to be nomadic hunter/gatherers with a knowledge of agriculture for uses in extreme measures. But perhaps it goes a little further back.

Something happened, but to pinpoint what and when it occurred may be impossible, but something happened that fundamentally changed humans. Perhaps it was the onset of the, “Little Ice Age – Wikipedia.” Perhaps it was the, “Black Death – Wikipedia.” Perhaps it was a combination of both. Consider the timeline of both events:

“There is no consensus on when the Little Ice Age began,[14][15] but a series of events before the known climatic minima have often been referenced. In the 13th century, pack ice began advancing southwards in the North Atlantic, as did glaciers in Greenland. Anecdotal evidence suggests expanding glaciers almost worldwide. Based on radiocarbon dating of roughly 150 samples of dead plant material with roots intact that were collected from beneath ice caps on Baffin Island and Iceland, Miller et al. (2012)[8] state that cold summers and ice growth began abruptly between 1275 and 1300, followed by “a substantial intensification” from 1430 to 1455.[8]

In contrast, a climate reconstruction based on glacial length[16][17] shows no great variation from 1600 to 1850 but a strong retreat thereafter.

Therefore, any of several dates ranging over 400 years may indicate the beginning of the Little Ice Age:

The Little Ice Age ended in the latter half of the 19th century or in the early 20th century.[20][21][22]” (Little Ice Age – Wikipedia)

And the suspected European origins of the Black Plague:

“Plague was reportedly first introduced to Europe via Genoese traders from their port city of Kaffa in the Crimea in 1347.” (Black Death – Wikipedia)

This is just one small sentence from the Wikipedia article on the “Black Death.” As always I implore you to click on and read the entire article just as I implore you to read the entire article on the Little Ice Age. There are many hypotheses and controversies on the origins of both incidents, and every one of them needs to be continually researched and proved or disproved. But, what if due to the onset of the little ice age, sometime in the early to mid-1300s a group, or groups of people who were gathered in the area of the Crimean peninsula, or some other nearby ancient European ruins writing scripture in stone, having knowledge of the Ice Ages of the past and the difficulties humans experienced surviving these periods, became scared of it occurring once again. History does repeat itself, after all.

What if these people hunkered down in these constructions they were writing, and instead used them as places of shelter from the elements that were befalling them? And, instead of simply staying long enough to write scripture, they remained for longer, much longer than they were supposed to stay. They resorted to remaining sedentary and exploited agriculture which in turn attracted the means necessary for the conditions that resulted in the first onset of the Black Death.

All it took, all it ever takes, is for one person, one idea, one misinterpretation of scripture to start an entirely new concept to emerge out of what we were always being told to avoid.

Scripture was still being written everywhere else in the world. Humans were still being nomadic hunter/gatherers, and agriculturalists as needed, except in this very specific place or area. And it was out of this one specific place that it gradually spread, first through Europe and eventually worldwide. The tools that humans copied from nature for their virtues, were instead being used for their vices and spread. The scriptures didn’t evolve into modern-day cities, the scriptures were hijacked by those who were supposed to be buried in the very places they were creating.

Where books create the settings of their stories in words, theater, cinema, and television create their settings for real. There has been all manner of set recreation, that of the past, present, and future. Most settings, such as city streets are just facades of the front of the buildings with nothing more behind them or painted canvas backgrounds, but many settings take place in actual existing places and locations. And there are props, every kind of prop imaginable of virtually every past and present existing object there is, and futuristic objects that have never existed, all in an effort of storytelling. Many of these props are cataloged, filed, and stored away for reuse in the same or other stories, discarded in the trash, or sold/auctioned off/stolen for the personal collections of humans. All the very same kinds of props that are found in these ancient places, in all the various similar conditions and locations.

My favorite thing when reading a book about historical events or characters, watching a documentary, or listening to a podcast, is when the anthropologists, archaeologists, or historians say things to the effect of, “we don’t know…,” “we’re not sure…,” “we believe…,” “this is missing…,” etc., etc. There is always something missing, information that may or may not have been destroyed, a missing record of an event, or missing information about a person. But there is nothing missing, there was nothing destroyed, and everything that has been found is found exactly the way it is supposed to be found. And yes, I agree more records and information will be discovered, but it will never be complete, there will always be something missing because it was left exactly the way the writers of scripture wanted it to be left. When the cuneiform tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh were found and translated, the whole story was told in those pieces, and the missing portions of the text were left exactly how they were left by the writers of scripture. It is possible that another tablet or some other form of medium will be discovered that will reveal more of the text, but it will still not be complete, there will always be a portion missing because the Epic of Gilgamesh is not the whole story, the text, the pieces of the tablet, the language, the missing portions of the text and the places where the texts are found are the just as much a part of the story as the epic itself is. Nothing is missing, nothing is lost to time, and nothing is destroyed that the authors of scripture did not want to be missed, lost, or destroyed. Scripture is never wholly complete. That is the joke. Just as all the contradictions in scripture are a joke as well.

All I’m trying to say is just because we unearth these ancient places and find various artifacts, whether it is written records such as the cuneiform tablets, pieces of pottery whether whole or broken, statues, weapons, and everything else, are we truly identifying what they were, or are we attributing to them what we believe they were? Are we reading scripture too literally, or should we be reading more of it?

Archaeologists have discovered many ancient places written about in many texts from history, and are still on the search for more, and one day they will find them. One of those mythological places that has been sought after is Plato’s City of Atlantis (Atlantis – Wikipedia). And, while there are those who believe they have discovered it numerous times already is laughably debatable because this place only exists as an allegory. However, if scripture were correctly read, and remember what I am referring to as scripture by recalling what I refer to as scripture, the City of Atlantis exists in all of the above examples. Here is how Scripture reveals the City of Atlantis:

Excitement.pdf (historyoftheworldpartthree.com)

However, this has always been about Genesis, or, “In Beginning.” And, for in beginning, we have to start with the very first word of scripture, “בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית, bə-rê-šîṯ”:

In-Beginning.pdf (historyoftheworldpartthree.com)

In a mere 968 words, starting with the single word, “beginning,” and the majority of their definitions, I am able not only to re-write the Bible from start to finish, but I am also able to re-write most religious texts, former civilizations’ histories, philosophies, scientific knowledge, and world history. All the information known and collected by our ancient ancestors and written down time and time again throughout the world in the language of architecture.

None of the information that I am presenting in this project is mine, I do not have any claim to, “intellectual property,” contained within the pages that I will be creating. The only people who have any claim to the “intellectual property” are long gone, and they left this information to us for free all around the world.

Nicolaus Copernicus, if you wish to believe that Nicolaus Copernicus ever existed as a real person, developed the hypothesis that the Earth revolved around the sun, “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium – Wikipedia,” among other accomplishments of course. However, aside from sharing his idea with a few select individuals in his life, he hesitated to publish his theory, until conspicuously near his death. Of course, humans knew that the Earth revolved around the sun for far longer than is ever given credit for, and the story of Copernicus and his life is just another metaphor.

The metaphor of Copernicus and his heliocentric theory is that the Earth is representative of a human, and to believe that the earth was the center of the universe, much like a human may believe that the earth revolves around them, is another vice of humans, “pride, hubris.” Copernicus hesitated to publish his theory because of the criticism and repercussions he would receive from society as a whole who would never conceive of an Earth that was not the center of the universe, where it was not created by a God, or the gods. Galileo defended the theory of heliocentrism and as a result was, “vehemently suspect of heresy” (Galileo Galilei – Wikipedia) As difficult as it is to contemplate, the earth does not revolve around me, and my wants and my needs.

I find it particularly hilarious that when it comes to Nicolaus Copernicus, after his death it is very reminiscent of the respect given to the remains of those found in Çatalhöyük:

“Copernicus was reportedly buried in Frombork Cathedral, where a 1580 epitaph stood until being defaced.

For over two centuries, archaeologists searched the cathedral in vain for Copernicus’s remains. Efforts to locate them in 1802, 1909, 1939 had come to nought. In 2004 a team led by Jerzy Gąssowski, head of an archaeology and anthropology institute in Pułtusk, began a new search, guided by the research of historian Jerzy Sikorski.[61][62] In August 2005, after scanning beneath the cathedral floor, they discovered what they believed to be Copernicus’s remains.[63]

The grave was in poor condition, and not all the remains of the skeleton were found; missing, among other things, was the lower jaw.[65]

Forensic expert Capt. Dariusz Zajdel of the Polish Police Central Forensic Laboratory used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely resembled the features—including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye—on a Copernicus self-portrait.[64]

The DNA from the bones found in the grave matched hair samples taken from a book owned by Copernicus which was kept at the library of the University of Uppsala in Sweden.[62][66]” (Nicolaus Copernicus – Wikipedia)

Bones, which are, “believed,” to be of Copernicus were found, however, it seems some of them are missing, which is curious in and of itself. A forensic scientist reconstructed the face of the skull, reminiscent of the plastering and painting of human skulls at Çatalhöyük. And DNA samples of the bones match those of hairs left in a book owned by Copernicus, a book that has miraculously passed through an unknown number of hands, all of which may or may not have opened the book to read it, but samples of Copernicus’ hair still remained to this day. The Wikipedia article does not specifically state whether these hair samples were purposely placed in the book by Copernicus himself, or just happened to fall off his head into the book, but either way, it is a miracle that they still remained in this book for all this time just so DNA comparisons can be made. And it must be noted, the root of the hair needs to be intact in order to get a DNA sample. Humans, we are amazing storytellers and history continues to repeat itself.

Knowledge, among just about everything else we believe is necessary for the well-being of every single human, should be free. Free to whoever and whenever they wish to access this knowledge, at whatever level of education they wish to pursue. The keepers of knowledge, among all the other hoarders of resources of the world, need to place themselves in the context of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory, and ask themselves, is the Earth (the self) the center of the universe, or is it just another planet that revolves around a star, among countless other planets that revolve around their stars, among countless revolving galaxies containing countless revolving solar systems, etc., etc.

This project is free. It will always be free. I will never request for anyone to subscribe to this website. I will never place any content behind a paywall. You will never see an advertisement anywhere on my website, a banner ad, or a pop-up ad, nor will you hear me pitch for any product or service, ever. I will never elicit funds through the purchase of products such as branded T-shirts, mugs, pens, or any other type of product. As far as I am concerned there are enough of these types of products already available, far too many really. At the beginning and at the end of each section you will simply see:

Donations accepted at: PayPal.Me

And if you wish to make a donation of any amount, then I will thank you in advance, and of course, thank you afterward with a personal note.

Thank you kindly, everyone.

And don’t forget to continue on with:

In-Beginning.pdf (historyoftheworldpartthree.com)